In July 2016 the European Commission found that MAN, Volvo/Renault, Daimler, Iveco, and DAF broke EU antitrust rules. It was found that the manufacturers colluded for 14 years on truck pricing and on passing on the costs of compliance with stricter emission rules. The Commission has imposed a record fine of € 2.9 billion. Any business or individual affected by anti-competitive behaviour may bring the matter before the courts and seek damages. The case law of the Court and Council Regulation 1/2003 both confirm that in cases before national courts, a Commission decision constitutes binding proof that the behavior took place and was illegal. Even though the Commission has fined the companies concerned, damages may be awarded without being reduced on account of the Commission fine.